Though Canadian women live longer on average than men (82.7 years vs. 78.0 years), Canadian men tend to live healthier lives. In 2001, Canadian men lived 88.8% (68.3 years) of their lives in good health, compared to 86.3% (70.8 years) of women .
Individuals with chronic conditions such as arthritis, chronic pain, and mental illness, have lower HALE as these health issues can affect mobility or ability to easily complete daily tasks. Each of these conditions is more prevalent for women and contributes to lowering HALE for women. For example, research has shown that men have a genetic protection against arthritis of the knee , and Canadian women report a higher prevalence of disability related to arthritis at nearly all age level . There is also a sex-related difference in chronic pain; 18% of Canadian women report chronic pain as opposed to 14% of Canadian men .
Chronic conditions are one of the main causes of lowered HALE and for many chronic conditions, women are at a higher risk than men Depression is the worldwide leading cause of years lived with disabilities, and women experience depression nearly twice as often as men . Women are more affected by stress-related disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, than men . Women are also more likely than men to have two or more chronic conditions (or co-morbidities), as well as to report having disabilities that affect daily functioning .